The best legend story in english Isaac newton,the great and most influential scientist who ever lived, was born in woolsthorpe, England, on Christmas day 1642,the same year that galileo died like Muhammad, legend story in english he was born after the death of his father. As a child,he showed considerable mechanical aptitud, and was very clever with his hands. Although a bright child he was intention in school and did not attract much attention .legend story in english When he was a teenager, his mother, took him out of school, hoping that he would become a successful farmer.Fortunantely, she was persuaded that his principle talents lay elsewhere, legend story in english and at eighteen, he entered Cambridge University.
There, he rapidly absorbed what was then known of science and mathematic, and soon moved on to his own independent Research . Between his twenty first and twenty seventh years. He laid the Foundations for the scientific theories that subsequently revolutionised the world. The middle of the seventeen century was a eried of great scientific ferment.legend story in english The invention of the telescope near the beginning of the century had revolutionised the entire study of astronom. The English philosopher francis becon and the french philosopher bene deseartes had both urged scientist throughout Europe to cease relying on the authority of Aristotle and to experiment and observe the great galileo had practiced. His Astronomical observations, using the newly invented telescop, had revolutionised the study of astronom, and his mechanical experiences had established what is now known as newtons first law of motion other great scientist, such as William harvery, who descovered the eireulation of the blood and Johannes kepler,
who discovered the laws describing the motions of the planets around the sun were bringing new basic information to the scientific community, still pure science was no proof that when applied to technolog, Science could revolutionized the whole mode of human life, as Francis bacon had predicte. Although compernicus and galileo had swept aside some of theisconcetions of the universe, no set of principle had been formulated that could turn this collection of seemingly unrelated facts into a unified theory with which to make scientific predictions.it was isaac newton who suppllied that unfied theroy and set modern science on the course which it has followed ever since.Newton was always reluctant to Publish hisreslts,and although he had formulated the basic ideas behind most of his work by 1669,many of his theories were not made public untill much later.
The first of his discoveres to be published was his ground breaking work on the nature of ligt. In a seriess of careful experiments, newton had discovered that ordinary white light is a caneful analysis of the consequeners of the laws of the reflection and refrection of light using these laws of the reflection and refraction of light. Using these laws, he had in 1668 designed and actually built the first reflecting telescipe the type of telescope that is used in most major Astronomicalobser vatories today. Thes ddiscoveries togather with the resulys of many other oplical eexperiments which he had performed were presented by newton before the british royal society when he was Twenty nine years old. Newtons achievements in optics alone would probably entile him to a place on this list; however, they are considerably less important than his accomplished in pure mathematics and me chanics. His major mathematical comtribution was his invention of integral calculus which he probably devised when hw was twenty three or twenty four years old. That invention, the most important achieveachievement of modern mathematics theory has grown it is also the essential tool without whichmost of the subsequent progesse in modern science would have been impossible. Had newton done nothing else,
the invention of integral calcutus by itself would have entilled him to a fairly high place on this list newton most important discover however, were in the freld of mechanic the science of how material objectes move, galileo had discovered the first law of motion, which deseribes the motion of objects if they are not subjected to any exerior forces.in practice, of course, all object are subjected to exterior forces and the most important question in mechanics is how objects moveunder such eireumstanes. This problem was solved by newton in his farmousse cond law of motion, which may rightly be considered the most fundamental law of classical physics. The sceond law (deseribed mathematical by the cuation F=ma) states that the acceleralion of an objects(i e the.. Rate at which its velocuty chang) is equal to the net force on the object divided by the objects mass. To those first two laws,newton added his famous third law of motion (which states that for each action _i.e.physical force_there is an equal and opposite neaction)and the most famous of his scientific laws,the law of universal gravitalion. This set of four laws, taken conjointy,from a unified system by means of which virtually all macroscopic mechanical system from tje swinging of a pendulum to the motion of the planets in their orbits arround the sun, may be investigate, and their behavior predicted. Newton did not merely state these laws of mechanis ; he Himsel. Using the math ematical tools of the calculus,showed how these fundamental laws could be applied to the solution of actual problem.
Newton laws can be and have been apoed to an extremely broad rnge of scientific and Engineering problem. During his lifetime, the most dramatic application of his laws was made in the field of his laws was made in the field of astronomy. In this area,too newton led the way. In 1687he published his great work, the mathematical principle of natural philosophy(usually referred to simply as the principl) iIn which he presented his law of gravitation and laws of motion. Newton showed how these laws of could be used to president precisely the morions of the planets arround the sun. The principle problem of dynamical astronomy that is, the problem of predicting exactly the positions and motions of the stars and planets was thereby completely solved by newton in one maginificent sweep. For this reson, newton is often considerd the greatest of all asteonomers. What,then,is our assessment of newton scientific importantce?if one looks, one will find more reference(perhaps two or three times as many) to newton and to his law and discoveries tjan to any onther individual scientific.
Furthermor, one should consider what other individual scientist. Furthermore,one should consider what other great scientists have said about newton.leibniz no friend of sir isaacs and a man with whom he engaged in a bitter dispute wrote:”taking mathematics from the beginning of the worldto the time when newton lived what he has done is much the better pantn “the great french scientists palace wrote:” the principle is precminent above any other roduction of human genius.”lagrange frequently stated that newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, while ernst mrch, writing in 191,said :”all that has been accomplished in mathematics since his day has been a deductive, formal, and mathematical development of mechanics on the basis of newton laws. “Tjis, perhaps,is the crux of newton great accomplishment :he found Science a hodgepode of isolated facts and laws, capble of deseribing some phenomena but of predicting only a few he left us a infied system of laws which were capable of application to an enormous range of physical phenomena and which could be used to make exact redictions. In a brief summary like this, it is not possible to detail all of newton desecoveries ;consequently,many of the lesser ones have been omitted,although they were important achievements in their own right. Newton made significant contributions to thermodynamic(the study of heat) and to a coustics(the study of sound) ;he enuelted the extremely important lhysical principles vation of angular momentum and conser vation of angular momentum:he discovered the binomial theorem in mathematics;and he game the first cogent exllanation of the origin of the stars,Now one might grant that newton was by far the greatest and most influential scientist whi ever lived but still ask why he should be ranked higher than such major political figures as alex ander the great or george Washingto, and ahead of such major religiois figures as jesus christ and gautama buddha.my own view is that ever though political change are of significanc, it is fair to say that most people in the world’s were living the same way 50uears after alexanders death as their forebears had lived five centuries before his time similarly, in most of their daily activitie, the majority of human being were living the same way 500years after alexander death as their daily activitie, the majority of human being had been living in 1500B.C. in the last five centuries, howeve,
with therise of modern scienc, the everyday life of most human beings has been completely revolutionised. We dress differently cat different foods,work at different jobs, and spend our leisune time a great deal differently than people did in 1500A.D. scientific discoveries have not only revolutionized technology and econkmoies they have also completely changed polities, religious thinking, art and philosophy. Few asects of human activity have remained unchanged by this scientific revilution and it is far this reason that so many scientists and inventors are to be found on this list. Newton was not only the most brilliant of all scientists;he was also the most influence figure in the development of scientific theory and there fore well menits aposition at or near the top of any list of the worlds most in fluential persona. Newton died in 1727,and was buried in westminster abbey, the first scientist to be accorded that honor.