The short english story great Chinese emperon shih Huang Ti,who ruled from 238_210 B.C, United china by force of arms and instituted a set of sweeping reforms .short english story Those reforms have been a major factor in the cultural unity that china has maintained ever since shih Huang Ti (also known as ch’in Shih Huang)was born in 259 B.C.and died in210B.C.Tonnunderstand his importance it is uncessary to have some knowledge of the historical background of his times .short english story He was born in the final years of the choudynast ,which had been founded 1100B.C, centuries before his time however,the Chou monarchs had ceased 122ti be effective rulers and china had become to be effective rulers ,and china had become divided into a large number of feudal states.The various feudal Lord’s were constantly at war with one another ,short english story and gradually , several of the smaller rulers were eliminated.
One of the most lowey of the warring states was ch’in in the western portion of the country .the ch’in rulers had adopted the ideas of the legalist school of Chinese philosopher as the basis of state policy . short english story Confucius had suggested that men should be governed primarily by the moral example of a god ruler;but according to the legalist philosophy ,most men were not good enough to be controlled by a striet set of laws firmly and importantly enforced. lowas were made by the ruler and could be charged at his pleasure to further state policy .
possibly because of their adoption of legalist ideas , possibly because of their geographical position,or possibly because of the capability of the ch’in rulers that state had already became the most powerful of the Chinese state at the time that Cheng (the future shih Huang Ti)was born , nominally Cheng ascended the throne in 246 B.C at the age of thirteen ,but in fact a recent goucrned untill Cheng came of age in 238 B .C The new monarch chose able generals and vigorously prosecuted the wars against the remaining feudal states .The last of these were conquered in 221 B.C and he could now have declared himself Wang (king)of LL china .To emphasize ,however the completed break he was making with the past,he chose a new title,and called himself shih Huang Ti,which means”the first emperor “.Shih Huang Ti immediately began to institute a large number of important reforms . Determined to avoid the disunity which had destroyed the choumonarchy ,he decided to abolish the entire feudal system of government .The territory he ruled was re_apportioned into thirty six provincial governor was no longer to be hereditary .
Indeed ,the practice soon developed of shifting Governor from one province to another a free a few years ,to avoided the possibility of an ambitious attaining a strong power base of his own .Each province also had its own military leader , appointed by the emperor a d removable at his pleasure ,and a third centrally appointed official to maintain the balance between the civil and military governor’s .An extensive system of good roads was constructed , coection the capital city with the provinces ,and insuring that the central army could be quickly dispatched to ny province besieged by a local revolt, shih Huang Ti,also decrease that the surviving members of the old aristocracy would have to move to hsienyang his own capital ,where he could keep an eye on them .But shih Huang Ti was not content with merely political and military unity in China he sought commercial unity as well .he instituted a unifired set of weight and measure throught the country standardized the coinage various implement and the scale length of wagon’s and supervised the construction of roads and canals .He also established a system of unifired lays throughout china and standardized the written language,
The emperor’s most famous (or perhaps infamous )act was the decree of burning of all the books in China. Exceptions were made for writings on such technical topics as agriculture and medicine the historical legalist writure and medicine ,the historical legalist writers.But the writings of all the other school of philosophy including the doctrines of confucius were to be destroyed .By this draconian decrease, probably the first example of large scales censorship in all of history, Shih Huang Ti hoped to destroy the influence that of the Confucian school.However,
he did under that copies of the prohibited book were to be kept in the imperial library,in the capital city .Shih Huang Ti s foreign policy was equally vigorous.He made extensive conquest in the southern part of the country,and the regions that he annexed were eventually absorbed into China.In the north and west also his armies were successful,but he could not permanently conquered the people living there.However,to prevent them from making raiders in China , Shih Huang Ti connected the various local walls aiready existing on China’s northern frontiers into one gigantic wake .The great walk of china , which has endured to the present day .Those construction projects, together with the series of foreign wars, necessitate high texes which made the emperor unpopular .since rebellion against his iron rule was impossible attempts were made to assassinated him .None of these attempts succeded, however,and Shih Huang Ti died a natural death in the year 210 B.C.The emperor was succeded by his second son who took the title fresh shih Huang Ti,But erh shih Huang Ti lacked his father’s ability ,and revolts soon broke out.Within four years he was killaed ;the palace and the imperial library were borned;and the Ch’in dynasty was totally destroyed.But the work that shih Huang Ti had accemphished was not to be undone .The was ended ,but few of them wanted to return to he anarchy of the preceding rea.
The next dynasty (the Jan dynasty ) continued the basic administration system set up by ch’in shih Huang Ti.In deed for twenty one centuries the Chinese empire continued to be organized along line’s he had estay . Although hmthe harsh system of laws of the Ch’in were soon moderated by the Jan emperor’s and although the whole legalist philosophy fell into disfavor and Confucianism be came the official state philosophy,the cultural and political indication which Huang Ti had ereated was not reversed.The critical importance of shih Huang Ti for china and for the world as a whole should now be apparent.Westerners have always been awed at the cnormous size of china however, throughout most of history china not really been much more populous than Europe.The difference is that Europe has always been divided into many small states,while china has been untill into a single large state.Thus difference some to have resulted from political and social factor rather than geography:internal barriers such a mountain ranges ,are just as they are in europe.of course the unity of china can’t be ascribed to the work of shih Huang Ti alone.various other person’s for the work of shih Huang Ti alone various other person’s for example,shiwent Ti have also played also played important roles,but there seems no doubt of shih Huang Ti,s Central importance.No discussion of shih Huang Ti would be completed without mention of his brilliant and celebrate chief minister,Ki su.In fact ,so important was the influence of Ki su on the emperor’s policies,that it is differcult to know how to divided the eredit between them for the great changes instituted.Rathe tham attempted that I have assigned all the credit for their joint assigned all the credit for their joint achievement to shih Huang Ti.(After all , although Ki su of fered advise it was the emperor who had the final say).Shih Huang Ti, partlt because of his burning of the books ,
has been villifried by most later confucian writers.Fhey denounce him as a referenceyrant,supertitions, malevolent, illegitimately born and of mediocre ability.The Chinese communist on the other hand generally praise him a accasionally compared shih Huang Ti to nopoleon however,it seems far more appropriate to compare him to Augustus Caesar,the founder of the Roman empire.The empire that they established were of more or less the same size and population.However,the Roman empire endured for a far scholars period ,and the territory ruled by Augustine did not in the long run retain it’s unity , where’s the territory governed by shih Huang Ti did , making him the more influential of the two.